Postmodern art is a body of art movements that sought to contradict some aspects of modernism or
some aspects that emerged or developed in its aftermath. In general, movements such as Intermedia,
Installation art, Conceptual Art and Multimedia, particularly involving video are described as postmodern.
There are several characteristics which lend art to being postmodern; these include bricolage,
the use of words prominently as the central artistic element, collage, simplification, appropriation,
performance art, the recycling of past styles and themes in a modern-day context, as well as the
break-up of the barrier between fine and high arts and low art and popular culture.
The predominant term for art produced since the 1950s is “contemporary art”. Not all art labeled
as contemporary art is postmodern, and the broader term encompasses both artists who continue
to work in modernist and late modernist traditions, as well as artists who reject postmodernism
for other reasons. Arthur Danto argues that “contemporary” is the broader term, and that postmodern
objects represent a “subsector” of the contemporary movement. Some postmodern artists have made
a more distinctive break from the ideas of modern art and there is no consensus as to what is
“late-modern” and what is “post-modern.” Ideas rejected by the modern aesthetic have been
re-established. In painting, postmodernism reintroduced representation.Traditional techniques
and subject matter have returned in art. It has even been argued that much of what is called
postmodern today, the latest avant-gardism, should still be classified as modern art.
As well as describing certain tendencies of contemporary art, postmodern has also been used
to denote a phase of modern art. This position is adopted by both defenders of modernism
such as Clement Greenberg, as well as radical opponents of modernism such as Félix Guattari,
who calls it modernism’s “last gasp”.The neo-conservative Hilton Kramer describes
postmodernism as “a creation of modernism at the end of its tether.” Jean-François Lyotard,
in Fredric Jameson’s analysis, does not hold that there is a postmodern stage radically different
from the period of high modernism; instead, postmodern discontent with this or that high
modernist style is part of the experimentation of high modernism, giving birth to new
modernisms. In the context of aesthetics and art, Jean-François Lyotard is a major
philosopher of postmodernism.
Many critics hold that postmodern art emerges from modern art. Suggested dates for
the shift from modern to postmodern include 1914 in Europe, and 1962 or 1968 in
America. James Elkins, commenting on discussions about the exact date of the transition
from modernism to postmodernism, compares it to the discussion in the 1960s about th
e exact span of Mannerism and whether it should begin directly after the High Renaissance
or later in the century. He makes the point that these debates go on all the time with
respect to art movements and periods, which is not to say that they are not important.
The close of the period of postmodern art has been dated to the end of the 1980s, when
the word postmodernism lost much of its critical resonance, and art practices began to
address the impact of globalization and new media.
American Marxist philosopher Fredric Jameson argues that the condition of life and
production will be reflected in all activity, including the making of art.
Jean Baudrillard has had a significant influence on postmodern-inspired art and has
emphasised the possibilities of new forms of creativity. The artist Peter Halley describes
his day-glo colours as “hyperrealization of real color”, and acknowledges Baudrillard as
an influence. Baudrillard himself, since 1984, was fairly consistent in his view that
contemporary art, and postmodern art in particular, was inferior to the modernist
art of the post World War II period,while Jean-François Lyotard praised Contemporary
painting and remarked on its evolution from Modern art. Major Women artists in the
Twentieth Century are associated with postmodern art since much theoretical
articulation of their work emerged from French psychoanalysis and Feminist Theory
that is strongly related to post modern philosophy.
As with all uses of the term postmodern there are critics of its application. Kirk
Varnedoe, for instance, stated that there is no such thing as postmodernism, and
that the possibilities of modernism have not yet been exhausted.
Though the usage of the term as a kind of shorthand to designate the work of certain
Post-war “schools” employing relatively specific material and generic techniques
has become conventional since the mid-1980s, the theoretical underpinnings of
Postmodernism as an epochal or epistemic division are still very much in controversy.
Defining postmodern art
The juxtaposition of old and new, especially with regards to taking styles from past
periods and re-fitting them into modern art outside of their original context, is a
common characteristic of postmodern art.
Postmodernism describes movements which both arise from, and react against
or reject, trends in modernism. Specific trends of modernism that are generally
cited are formal purity, medium specificity, art for art’s sake, authenticity, universality,
originality and revolutionary or reactionary tendency, i.e. the avant-garde. However,
paradox is probably the most important modernist idea against which postmodernism
reacts. Paradox was central to the modernist enterprise, having been introduced by
Manet. Manet’s various violations of representational art brought to prominence
the supposed mutual exclusiveness of reality and representation, design and
representation, abstraction and reality, and so on. The incorporation of paradox
was highly stimulating from Manet to the conceptualists.
The status of the avant-garde is particularly controversial: many institutions argue
that being visionary, forward-looking, cutting-edge, and progressive are crucial to
the mission of art in the present, and therefore postmodern art contradicts the value
of “art of our times”. Postmodernism rejects the notion of advancement or progress
in art per se, and thus aims to overturn the “myth of the avant-garde”. Rosalind
Krauss was one of the important enunciators of the view that avant-gardism was
over, and that the new artistic era is post-liberal and post-progress.Griselda Pollock
studied and confronted the avant-garde and modern art in a series of books,
reviewing modern art at the same time as redefining postmodern art.
One characteristic of postmodern art is its conflation of high and low culture
through the use of industrial materials and pop culture imagery. The use of low
forms of art were a part of modernist experimentation as well, as documented
in Kirk Varnedoe and Adam Gopnik’s 1990–91 show High and Low: Popular Culture
and Modern Art at New York’s Museum of Modern Art, an exhibition that was
universally panned at the time as the only event that could bring Douglas Crimp
and Hilton Kramer together in a chorus of scorn. Postmodern art is noted for the
way in which it blurs the distinctions between what is perceived as fine or high
art and what is generally seen as low or kitsch art.Whilst this concept of ‘blurring’
or ‘fusing’ high art with low art had been experimented during modernism, it
only ever became fully endorsed after the advent of the postmodern era
. Postmodernism introduced elements of commercialism, kitsch and a general
camp aesthetic within its artistic context; postmodernism takes styles from past
periods, such as Gothicism, the Renaissance and the Baroque, and mixes them
in a fashion which ignores their original use in their corresponding artistic
movement. Such elements are common characteristics of what is defined as postmodern art.
Fredric Jameson suggests that postmodern works abjure any claim to spontaneity
and directness of expression, making use instead of pastiche and discontinuity.
Against this definition, Art and Language’s Charles Harrison and Paul Wood maintained
that pastiche and discontinuity are endemic to modernist art, and are deployed
effectively by modern artists such as Manet and Picasso.
One compact definition is that postmodernism rejects modernism’s grand narratives
of artistic direction, eradicating the boundaries between high and low forms of art,
and disrupting genre’s conventions with collision, collage, and fragmentation.
Postmodern art holds that all stances are unstable and insincere, and therefore irony,
parody, and humor are the only positions that cannot be overturned by critique or
revision. “Pluralism and diversity” are other defining features.
Radical movements and trends regarded as influential and potentially as precursors
to postmodernism emerged around World War I and particularly in its aftermath. With
the introduction of the use of industrial artifacts in art and techniques such as collage,
avant-garde movements such as Cubism, Dada and Surrealism questioned the nature
and value of art. These movements were influenced by new artforms such as cinema
and the rise of reproduction as a means of creating artworks. The ignition point for the
definition of modernism, Clement Greenberg’s essay, Avant-Garde and Kitsch, first
published in Partisan Review in 1939, is a defence of the avant-garde in the face of
popular culture. Later, Peter Bürger would make a distinction between the historical
avant-garde and modernism, and critics such as Krauss, Huyssen, and Douglas Crimp,
following Bürger, identified the historical avant-garde as a precursor to postmodernism.
Krauss, for example, describes Pablo Picasso’s use of collage as an avant-garde practice
that anticipates postmodern art with its emphasis on language at the expense of
autobiography. Another point of view is that avant-garde and modernist artists used
similar strategies and that postmodernism repudiates both.
In the early 20th century Marcel Duchamp exhibited a urinal as a sculpture. His point
was to have people look at the urinal as if it were a work of art, because he said it was
a work of art. He referred to his work as “Readymades”. The Fountain, was a urinal
signed with the pseudonym R. Mutt, that shocked the art world in 1917. This and
Duchamp’s other works are generally labelled as Dada. Duchamp can be seen as a
precursor to conceptual art. It is questionable, to some, whether Duchamp—whose
obsession with paradox is well known—can be called postmodernist on only the
grounds that he eschews any specific medium, since paradox is not medium-specific,
although it arose first in Manet’s paintings.
Dadaism can be viewed as part of the modernist propensity to challenge established
styles and forms, along with Surrealism, Futurism and Abstract Expressionism.From
a chronological point of view Dada is located solidly within modernism, however
a number of critics have held that it anticipates postmodernism, while others, such
as Ihab Hassan and Steven Connor, consider it a possible changeover point between
modernism and postmodernism. For example, according to McEvilly, postmodernism
begins with the realization that one no longer believes in the myth of progress, and
that Duchamp sensed this in 1914 when he changed his modernist practice to a
postmodernist one, “abjuring aesthetic delectation, transcendent ambition, and
tour de force demonstrations of formal agility in favor of aesthetic indifference,
acknowledgement of the ordinary world, and the found object or readymade.”
In general, Pop Art and Minimalism began as modernist movements: a paradigm shift
and philosophical split between formalism and anti-formalism in the early 1970s
caused those movements to be viewed by some as precursors or transitional
postmodern art. Other modern movements cited as influential to postmodern
art are conceptual art and the use of techniques such as assemblage, montage,
bricolage, and appropriation.
During the late 1940s and early 1950s Pollock’s radical approach to painting
revolutionized the potential for all Contemporary art that followed him. To
some extent Pollock realized that the journey toward making a work of art was as
important as the work of art itself. Like Pablo Picasso’s innovative reinventions of
painting and sculpture near the turn of the century via Cubism and constructed
sculpture, Pollock redefined the way art gets made at the mid-century point.
Pollock’s move — away from easel painting and conventionality — was a liberating
signal to his contemporaneous artists and to all that came after. Artists realized that
Jackson Pollock’s process — working on the floor, unstretched raw canvas, from all
four sides, using artist materials, industrial materials, imagery, non-imagery, throwing
linear skeins of paint, dripping, drawing, staining, brushing, essentially blasted
artmaking beyond any prior boundary. Abstract expressionism in general expanded
and developed the definitions and possibilities that artists had available for the
creation of new works of art. In a sense the innovations of Jackson Pollock, Willem
de Kooning, Franz Kline, Mark Rothko, Philip Guston, Hans Hofmann, Clyfford Still,
Barnett Newman, Ad Reinhardt and others opened the floodgates to the diversity
and scope of all the art that followed them.
In abstract painting during the 1950s and 1960s several new directions like Hard-edge
painting and other forms of Geometric abstraction like the work of Frank Stella popped
up, as a reaction against the subjectivism of Abstract expressionism began to appear
in artist studios and in radical avant-garde circles. Clement Greenberg became the
voice of Post-painterly abstraction; by curating an influential exhibition of new painting
that toured important art museums throughout the United States in 1964. Color field
painting, Hard-edge painting and Lyrical Abstraction emerged as radical new directions.
By the late 1960s however, Postminimalism, Process Art and Arte Povera also emerged
as revolutionary concepts and movements that encompassed both painting and sculpture,
via Lyrical Abstraction and the Postminimalist movement, and in early Conceptual Art.
Process art as inspired by Pollock enabled artists to experiment with and make use of
a diverse encyclopedia of style, content, material, placement, sense of time, and plastic
and real space. Nancy Graves, Ronald Davis, Howard Hodgkin, Larry Poons, Jannis Kounellis,
Brice Marden, Bruce Nauman, Richard Tuttle, Alan Saret, Walter Darby Bannard, Lynda
Benglis, Dan Christensen, Larry Zox, Ronnie Landfield, Eva Hesse, Keith Sonnier, Richard
Serra, Sam Gilliam, Mario Merz, Peter Reginato were some of the younger artists who
emerged during the era of late modernism that spawned the heyday of the art of the late 19
Yves Klein in France, and Carolee Schneemann, Yayoi Kusama, Charlotte Moorman were
pioneers of performance based works of art, that often entailed nudity.
During the late 1950s and 1960s artists with a wide range of interests began to push th
e boundaries of Contemporary art. Yves Klein in France, and Carolee Schneemann,
Yayoi Kusama, Charlotte Moorman were pioneers of performance based works of art
. Groups like The Living Theater with Julian Beck and Judith Malina collaborated with
sculptors and painters creating environments; radically changing the relationship
between audience and performer especially in their piece Paradise Now. The Judson
Dance Theater located at the Judson Memorial Church, New York, and the Judson
dancers, notably Yvonne Rainer, Trisha Brown, Elaine Summers, Sally Gross, Simonne
Forti, Deborah Hay, Lucinda Childs, Steve Paxton and others collaborated with artists
Robert Morris, Robert Whitman, John Cage, Robert Rauschenberg, and engineers like
Billy Klüver. These performances were often designed to be the creation of a new art
form, combining sculpture, dance, and music or sound, often with audience participation.
The works were characterized by the reductive philosophies of minimalism, and the
spontaneous improvisation, and expressivity of Abstract expressionism.
During the same period — the late 1950s through the mid-1960s various avant-garde
artists created Happenings. Happenings were mysterious and often spontaneous and
unscripted gatherings of artists and their friends and relatives in varied specified
locations. Often incorporating exercises in absurdity, physical exercise, costumes,
spontaneous nudity, and various random and seemingly disconnected acts. Allan
Kaprow, Joseph Beuys, Nam June Paik, Wolf Vostell, Claes Oldenburg, Jim Dine, Red
Grooms, and Robert Whitman among others were notable creators of Happenings.
Related to Abstract expressionism was the emergence of combined manufactured items —
with artist materials, moving away from previous conventions of painting and sculpture.
This trend in art is exemplified by the work of Robert Rauschenberg, whose “combines” in
the 1950s were forerunners of Pop Art and Installation art, and made use of the assemblage
of large physical objects, including stuffed animals, birds and commercial photography.
Leo Steinberg uses the term postmodernism in 1969 to describe Rauschenberg’s “flatbed”
picture plane, containing a range of cultural images and artifacts that had not been
compatible with the pictorial field of premodernist and modernist painting. Craig Owen
goes further, identifying the significance of Rauschenberg’s work not as a representation
of, in Steinberg’s view, “the shift from nature to culture”, but as a demonstration of the
impossibility of accepting their opposition.
Steven Best and Douglas Kellner identify Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns as part of the
transitional phase, influenced by Marcel Duchamp, between modernism and postmodernism.
Both these artists used images of ordinary objects, or the objects themselves, in their
work, while retaining the abstraction and painterly gestures of high modernism.
Anselm Kiefer also uses elements of assemblage in his works, and on one occasion
featured the bow of a fishing boat in a painting.
The term “Pop Art” was used by Lawrence Alloway to describe paintings that celebrated
consumerism of the post World War II era. This movement rejected Abstract expressionism
and its focus on the hermeneutic and psychological interior, in favor of art which depicted,
and often celebrated material consumer culture, advertising, and iconography of the mass
production age. The early works of David Hockney and the works of Richard Hamilton, John
McHale, and Eduardo Paolozzi were considered seminal examples in the movement. While
later American examples include the bulk of the careers of Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein
and his use of Benday dots, a technique used in commercial reproduction. There is a clear
connection between the radical works of Duchamp, the rebellious Dadaist — with a sense
of humor; and Pop Artists like Claes Oldenburg, Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein and the others.
Thomas McEvilly, agreeing with Dave Hickey, says that U.S postmodernism in the visual arts
began with the first exhibitions of pop art in 1962, “though it took about twenty years
before postmodernism became a dominant attitude in the visual arts.” Fredric Jameson, too,
considers pop art to be postmodern.
One way that Pop art is postmodern is that it breaks down what Andreas Huyssen calls
the “Great Divide” between high art and popular culture.Postmodernism emerges from
a “generational refusal of the categorical certainties of high modernism.”
Fluxus was named and loosely organized in 1962 by George Maciunas (1931–78), a
Lithuanian-born American artist. Fluxus traces its beginnings to John Cage’s 1957 to 1959
Experimental Composition classes at the New School for Social Research in New York City.
Many of his students were artists working in other media with little or no background in
music. Cage’s students included Fluxus founding members Jackson Mac Low, Al Hansen,
George Brecht and Dick Higgins. In 1962 in Germany Fluxus started with the: FLUXUS
Internationale Festspiele Neuester Musik in Wiesbaden with, George Maciunas, Joseph
Beuys, Wolf Vostell, Nam June Paik and others. And in 1963 with the: Festum Fluxorum
Fluxus in Düsseldorf with George Maciunas, Wolf Vostell, Joseph Beuys, Dick Higgins,
Nam June Paik, Ben Patterson, Emmett Williams and others.
Fluxus encouraged a do it yourself aesthetic, and valued simplicity over complexity. Like
Dada before it, Fluxus included a strong current of anti-commercialism and an anti-art
sensibility, disparaging the conventional market-driven art world in favor of an artist-centered
creative practice. Fluxus artists preferred to work with whatever materials were at hand, and
either created their own work or collaborated in the creation process with their colleagues.
Fluxus can be viewed as part of the first phase of postmodernism, along with Rauschenberg,
Johns, Warhol and the Situationist International. Andreas Huyssen criticises attempts to claim
Fluxus for postmodernism as, “either the master-code of postmodernism or the ultimately
unrepresentable art movement – as it were, postmodernism’s sublime.” Instead he sees Fluxus
as a major Neo-Dadaist phenomena within the avant-garde tradition. It did not represent a major
advance in the development of artistic strategies, though it did express a rebellion against,
“the administered culture of the 1950s, in which a moderate, domesticated modernism
served as ideological prop to the Cold War.”
By the early 1960s Minimalism emerged as an abstract movement in art (with roots in
geometric abstraction via Malevich, the Bauhaus and Mondrian) which rejected the idea
of relational, and subjective painting, the complexity of Abstract expressionist surfaces,
and the emotional zeitgeist and polemics present in the arena of Action painting.
Minimalism argued that extreme simplicity could capture all of the sublime
representation needed in art. Associated with painters such as Frank Stella,
minimalism in painting, as opposed to other areas, is a modernist movement
and depending on the context can be construed as a precursor to the postmodern
Hal Foster, in his essay The Crux of Minimalism, examines the extent to which Donald
Judd and Robert Morris both acknowledge and exceed Greenbergian modernism in
their published definitions of minimalism.He argues that minimalism is not a “dead end”
of modernism, but a “paradigm shift toward postmodern practices that continue to be
The term Post-minimalism was coined by Robert Pincus-Witten in 1977 to describe
minimalist derived art which had content and contextual overtones that minimalism
rejected. His use of the term covered the period 1966 – 1976 and was applied to the
work of Eva Hesse, Keith Sonnier, Richard Serra and new work by former minimalists
Robert Smithson, Robert Morris, Sol LeWitt, and Barry Le Va, and others. Process art
and anti-form art are other terms used to describe this work determined by the space
it occupies and the process by which it is made.
Rosalind Krauss argues that by 1968 artists such as Morris, LeWitt, Smithson and
Serra had “entered a situation the logical conditions of which can no longer be
described as modernist.”The expansion of the category of sculpture to include
land art and architecture, “brought about the shift into postmodernism.”
Minimalists like Donald Judd, Dan Flavin, Carl Andre, Agnes Martin, John
McCracken and others continued to produce their late modernist paintings and
sculpture for the remainder of their careers.
The clear distinction between what defines modern art, with its constant
reinvention, and the return to classical painting and sculpture is a central concern
in postmodernism. Chief among the proponents of this aspect of postmodernism
is the Art Renewal Center with its staunch rejection of all art it perceives to be
modern. This aesthetically conservative movement is often referred to as classical realism.
Conceptual art is sometimes labelled as postmodern because it is expressly involved
in deconstruction of what makes a work of art, “art”. Conceptual art, because it is
often designed to confront, offend or attack notions held by many of the people who
view it, is regarded with particular controversy.
Precursors to conceptual art include the work of Duchamp, John Cage’s 4′ 33″, in
which the music is said to be “the sounds of the environment that the listeners’
hear while it is performed,” and Rauschenberg’s Erased De Kooning Drawing. Many
conceptual works take the position that art is created by the viewer viewing an object
or act as art, not from the intrinsic qualities of the work itself. Thus, because
Fountain was exhibited, it was a sculpture.
An important series of movements in art which have consistently been described as
postmodern involved installation art and creation of artifacts that are conceptual in
nature. One example being the signs of Jenny Holzer which use the devices of art to
convey specific messages, such as “Protect Me From What I Want”. Installation Art has
been important in determining the spaces selected for museums of contemporary art
in order to be able to hold the large works which are composed of vast collages of
manufactured and found objects. These installations and collages are often electrified,
with moving parts and lights.
They are often designed to create environmental effects, as Christo and Jeanne-Claude’s Iron
Curtain, Wall of 240 Oil Barrels, Blocking Rue Visconti, Paris, June 1962 which was a
poetic response to the Berlin Wall built in 1961.
Lowbrow is a widespread populist art movement with origins in the underground
comix world, punk music, hot-rod street culture, and other California subcultures.
It is also often known by the name pop surrealism. Lowbrow art highlights a central
theme in postmodernism in that the distinction between “high” and “low” art are no
Digital art is a general term for a range of artistic works and practices that use digital
technology as an essential part of the creative and/or presentation process. The impact
of digital technology has transformed activities such as painting, drawing, sculpture and
music/sound art, while new forms, such as net art, digital installation art, and virtual
reality, have become recognized artistic practices.
Leading art theorists and historians in this field include Christiane Paul, Frank Popper,
Christine Buci-Glucksmann, Dominique Moulon, Robert C. Morgan, Roy Ascott, Catherine
Perret, Margot Lovejoy, Edmond Couchot, Fred Forest and Edward A. Shanken.
Another trend in art which has been associated with the term postmodern is the use of
a number of different media together. Intermedia, a term coined by Dick Higgins and
meant to convey new artforms along the lines of Fluxus, Concrete Poetry, Found objects,
Performance art, and Computer art. Higgins was the publisher of the Something Else
Press, a Concrete poet, married to artist Alison Knowles and an admirer of Marcel
Duchamp. Ihab Hassan includes, “Intermedia, the fusion of forms, the confusion of
realms,” in his list of the characteristics of postmodern art. One of the most common
forms of “multi-media art” is the use of video-tape and CRT monitors, termed Video
art. While the theory of combining multiple arts into one art is quite old, and has been
revived periodically, the postmodern manifestation is often in combination with
performance art, where the dramatic subtext is removed, and what is left is the
specific statements of the artist in question or the conceptual statement of their
action. Higgin’s conception of Intermedia is connected to the growth of multimedia
digital practice such as immersive virtual reality, digital art and computer art.
Telematic art is a descriptive of art projects using computer mediated
telecommunications networks as their medium. Telematic art challenges the
traditional relationship between active viewing subjects and passive art objects
by creating interactive, behavioural contexts for remote aesthetic encounters. Roy
Ascott sees the telematic art form as the transformation of the viewer into an active
participator of creating the artwork which remains in process throughout its duration
. Ascott has been at the forefront of the theory and practice of telematic art since 1978
when he went online for the first time, organizing different collaborative online projects.
In his 1980 essay The Allegorical Impulse: Toward a Theory of Postmodernism, Craig
Owens identifies the re-emergence of an allegorical impulse as characteristic of
postmodern art. This impulse can be seen in the appropriation art of artists such
as Sherrie Levine and Robert Longo because, “Allegorical imagery is appropriated
imagery.” Appropriation art debunks modernist notions of artistic genius and
originality and is more ambivalent and contradictory than modern art,
simultaneously installing and subverting ideologies, “being both critical and complicit.”
The return to the traditional art forms of sculpture and painting in the late 1970s and
early 1980s seen in the work of Neo-expressionist artists such as Georg Baselitz and
Julian Schnabel has been described as a postmodern tendency, and one of the firs
t coherent movements to emerge in the postmodern era. Its strong links with the
commercial art market has raised questions, however, both about its status as a
postmodern movement and the definition of postmodernism itself. Hal Foster
states that neo-expressionism was complicit with the conservative cultural politics
of the Reagan-Bush era in the U.S. Félix Guattari disregards the “large promotional
operations dubbed ‘neo-expressionism’ in Germany,” (an example of a “fad that
maintains itself by means of publicity”) as a too easy way for him “to demonstrate
that postmodernism is nothing but the last gasp of modernism.” These critiques of
neo-expressionism reveal that money and public relations really sustained
contemporary art world credibility in America during the same period that
conceptual artists, and practices of women artists including painters and feminist
theorists like Griselda Pollock,were systematically reevaluating modern art. Brian
Massumi claims that Deleuze and Guattari open the horizon of new definitions
of Beauty in postmodern art. For Jean-François Lyotard, it was painting of the artists
Valerio Adami, Daniel Buren, Marcel Duchamp, Bracha Ettinger, and Barnett Newman
that, after the avant-garde’s time and the painting of Paul Cézanne and Wassily
Kandinsky, was the vehicle for new ideas of the sublime in contemporary art.